How do fish in the Southern Ocean keep from freezing?

Photo & Video Gallery

Photo of NBP and Grytviken The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer, with the abandoned Norwegian whaling station, Grytviken, in the background.
Video highlights from Tristan da Cunha (click the image to view). You will need the Quicktime player, available for free at www.apple.com/quicktime/download
Video highlights from Bouvetoya Island (click the image to view). You will need the Quicktime player, available for free at www.apple.com/quicktime/download
Bouvetoya Island Bouvetoya Island, the most isolated island in the world, is a very grim place. Landing there is virtually impossible.
TJ driving the zodiac Marine Technician TJ Hurlburt assesses the shore surf for a possible landing at Bouvetoya Island. We were not able to get ashore to fish with our beach seines. The Antarctic Pilot says that landing at Bouvetoya Island is "difficult under the best conditions.
Bounty of coriiceps A bounty of Notothenia coriiceps captured by trap at Bouvetoya Island.
Bruce with floats Who says Americans can't play soccer? Bruce Sidell shoots on goal at Bouvetoya Stadium.
Photo of Diesels Two of the four 3608 Caterpillar diesel engines of the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer. The four operating simultaneously can generate 13,500 horse power.
Photo of Drive Shaft One clutch (yellow) and drive shaft (silver, right) serves each pair of diesel engines. Each of the drive shafts turns a 4-meter diameter propeller!
Photo of Engineering Spaces The engineering spaces of the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer are very efficiently laid out but also confined and hot. Because these spaces are so well insulated for polar work, normal operating temperatures are above 100 degrees F. Temperatures as high as 160 deg F have been recorded when the ship crosses the equator.
Photo of Chief Engineer Chief Engineer JP (Johnny Pierce) explains the functioning of the engineering spaces to ICEFISH participants. JP has served on the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer from the beginning of its service 12 years ago.
Photo of Cape Pigeon

A Participant Favorite Photo by Bill Detrich

Artistic interpretation of a Cape Pigeon in flight over the South Atlantic.
Photo of old boat at Grytviken

A Participant Favorite Photo by Herb Baker

An abandoned sealing vessel at Grytviken whaling station.
Photo of Candlemas boats

A Participant Favorite Photo by Zachary Marion

Candlemas Island, South Sandwiches, as viewed from the bridge of the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer.
Photo of NBP at sunset

A Participant Favorite Photo by Romolo Fochetti

Sunset on South Georgia, the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer at King Edward Point.
Photo of NBP at night

A Participant Favorite Photo by Florian Leese

The RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer breaking ice at night near Bristol Island, South Sandwich chain.
Photo of South Georgia

A Participant Favorite Photo by Ennio Cocca

Sun, sea, and icebergs, South Georgia
Photo of South Georgia Dawn

A Participant Favorite Photo by Steven Young

Dawn, South Georgia, June 9, 2004
Photo of Falklands

A Participant Favorite Photo by Joseph Eastman

A typical Falkland's winter landscape.
Photo of Grytviken

A Participant Favorite Photo by Marino Vacchi

The abandoned Norwegian whaling station, Grytviken, nestles beneath the South Georgia mountainsNear dawn a blue iceberg stands out against the pink sky.
Photo of Blue Berg

A Participant Favorite Photo by David Stein

Near dawn a blue iceberg stands out against the pink sky.
Photo of Ice

A Participant Favorite Photo by Craig Marshall

Pancake ice near Bristol Island.
Photo of Elephant Seal and Whale bone

A Participant Favorite Photo by Shane Windsor

An elephant seal resting behind a whale bone on South Georgia.
Photo of Shrimp

A Participant Favorite Photo by Federico Mazzei

A painted shrimp flies off an iceberg silouette.
Photo of NBP expedition members A Participant Favorite Photo by Tony North
Several expedition members at the bow of the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer, South Georgia. Left to right, front: Chief Scientist William Detrich, Carl Hansen, Toby Koffman, Christopher Jones, and Christoph Held. Back: David Stein, Susanne Lockhart, Cate Cornell, and Phil Ross.
Photo of Dr. di Prisco bleeding fish

A Participant Favorite

Dr. di Prisco bleeds a notothenioid fish for his work on adaptation of hemoglobins.
Photo of Removing parasites from fish

A Participant Favorite

Jacob Kendrick assists Christoph Held in removing mouth parasites from a large Patagonian toothfish, Dissostichus eleginoides.
Photo of Raising the Cod End The cod end is lifted by a winch so that the catch can be released. Because the days are so short, most of our fishing occurs at night.
Photo of The Cold End opening A magnificent catch. Though dominated by invertebrates, we collected more than 250 fish from this haul. Note the boulder that we also "caught".
Photo of Chris Jones Culling for Fish Christopher Jones culling the Bouvetoya catch for fish. He reports a surprising change in species composition in comparison to the South Sandwiches, our previous location.
Photo of Sorting the Invertebrates Susanne Lockhart and Andrew Thurber sorting the benthic invertebrates from the trawl. The temperature was approximately -10 deg C, with a windchill of about -35 deg C on this fine evening.
Photo of Auckland Students Staff and Year 8 & 9 Students following the ICEFISH cruise from the Diocesan School, Auckland.
Photo of NBP breaking ice The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer breaking through pack ice near Bristol Island, the South Sandwich Archipelago. Approximately 59 South, 26.6 West.
Photo of Pulling the Traps Traps are recovered off the starboard side of the vessel using a hydraulic pot hauler.
Photo of Buoy A high flyer with radio beacon and a buoy mark the location of a set of fish traps. Note the 15-ft wave in the background.
Photo of Seas Trap recovery can be a wet experience!
Photo of a Cape Pigeon Cape Pigeons and many other species of birds seemingly enjoy flying around our vessel.
Photo of Adelies from the NBP Two Adelie Penguins on sea ice near Bristol Island in the South Sandwiches. The penguin on the left is tobogganing, or sliding on its belly while pushing with its feet.
Photo of Gentoo at South Georgia An inquisitive Gentoo penguin on South Georgia walks towards photographer Shane Windsor.
Photo of British Base at KEP Greetings from some of the British Antarctic Survey personnel at their King Edward's Point station, South Georgia. Thirteen people, including three biologists, are spending the winter on the base.
Photo of Shackleton's Grave. The grave of Sir Ernest Shackleton, the British Antarctic Explorer and Leader of the Endurance Expedition.
Photo of presentation to Dr. Ross Bill presents a comemorative R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer plaque to Frin (Dr. Katherine Ross), Chief Scientist of the British Antarctic Survey base at King Edward's Point. The BAS personnel welcomed us warmly during our all-too-brief visit.
(photo by Florian Leese)
Photo of Grytviken Whaling Station Some of the processing equipment at the abandoned Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken.
Photo of Baby Jessica

On the Lighter Side

Surgeons worked round the clock for three days to reconstruct 18 ft. Otter Trawl nicknamed "Baby Jessica." The heroic net captured the hearts of all personnel onboard the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer during the week she clung to life.... [More on Baby Jessica]
Photo of Fishing Expedition Four intrepid ICEFISH participants (left to right Zachary Marion, Cate Cornell, Kristen Kuhn, and Phil Ross) are about to fish Stanley harbor using one of the Zodiac inflatable boats behind them.
Photo of Lukhanyiso with Skate Lukhanyiso Vumazonke of the South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity holds a skate that was collected near the Falkland Islands.
Photo of Robert and Governor Captain Robert Verret (left) of the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer took the Governor General of the Falkland Islands, Howard Pearce (right), and his wife on a tour of the ship and demonstrated its many advanced features for polar marine science.
Photo of Cate Cornell at work Graduate student Cate Cornell of the Dept. of Biology at Northeastern University preparing DNA from the blood cells of a notothenioid fish.
Photo of Gunnari The mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari. Note the parasitic leaches (orange) attached to the body. We should capture specimens of this fish near South Georgia.
Photo of Chaenocephalus The blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. In the foreground are several invertebrates, including a shell, an anemone, and a pencil urchin (cidaroid).
Photo of Jamee and Friend Jamee Johnson, a Marine Technician who works for Raytheon Polar Services, holding a Patagonian toothfish that we caught in a fish trap May 24th.
Photo a trawl catch Trawl catch.
Photo of Kristin and Toothfish Kristen Kuhn of the University of Delaware Marine Science Center holds a one-pound specimen of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides).
Photo of Captain Robert and John Captain Robert Verret (right) and Second Mate, John Souza (left).
Photo of R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Research Vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer at the dock in Punta Arenas, Chile, May 13, 2004.
Photo of Aft Dry Lab on NBP The Aft Dry Lab. Part of the 4,600 sq. ft. of lab space on board the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer.
Photo of a Cape Pigeon A Cape Pigeon that was flying next to the ship. Its wing span is about 40 cm.
Photo of the research vessel in a storm Research vessel in a storm.
Photo of male elephant seal Male elephant seal.
Photo of fur seal under water Fur seal under water.
Photo of Humpback whales Humpback whales.
Photo of Leopard Seal growling Leopard Seal growling.
Photo of pink moon over Bonaparte Pink moon over Bonaparte.
Photo Bill Detrich at South Pole Bill Detrich at the South Pole.
Photo of Bill Detrich swimming in polar water Bill Detrich taking a dip in polar waters. Brrr!